Climate risk

Climate change is a source of financial risk, impacting the resilience of individual insurers as well as global financial stability. While insurers are exposed to both transition and physical risks through their underwriting and investment activities, they can also be key agents in identifying, mitigating and managing climate risk, thereby contributing to a sustainable transition to net-zero. 

Therefore, climate change is a key theme within the IAIS Strategic Plan. The IAIS’ work on climate change spans across many activities such as financial stability risk assessment, development of supervisory and supporting material and capacity building. 

Financial stability

The Global Monitoring Exercise (GME) allows the IAIS to monitor and assess global insurance market trends and developments and their potential impact on insurance markets and global financial stability. In 2021, the IAIS published a special topic edition of the Global Insurance Market Report (GIMAR) on the insurance sector’ investment exposures to climate-related risks. This report provided the first quantitative global study on the impact of climate change on the insurance sector.  

Since then, climate risk data elements have become a regular feature of the IAIS’ GME and provide a global baseline of climate risk data for the insurance sector. The outcomes of the analysis are published annually as part of the regular GIMAR.

Standard setting and supervisory practices

The IAIS work in this area focuses on promoting a globally consistent supervisory response to climate change and providing supervisors with the necessary tools to monitor, assess and address climate-related risks to the insurance sector.  

In previous years, together with the UN-convened Sustainable Insurance Forum (SIF), the IAIS published several papers: 

Since then, the IAIS continues to closely monitor developments in global climate change mitigation efforts, climate science and supervisory practices to manage climate-related risks. In 2022, the IAIS performed a gap analysis of existing IAIS supervisory materials to assess how climate risk is already captured and to identify possible further work in terms of standard setting and providing further guidance on supervisory practices. In consideration of the gap analysis outcome, the IAIS is conducting a series of public consultations to present new and updated supervisory and supporting materials.  

The first consultation in March 2023 outlined proposed changes to the ICP Introduction, which positions climate risk within the global framework for insurance supervision. Additionally, the IAIS discussed whether it was necessary to make changes to the existing supporting materials related to governance, risk management and internal controls (ICP 7 and 8). Finally, the consultation included questions seeking stakeholder feedback on the overall climate-related work as it related to supervisory guidance. 

Recent events and Upcoming events

Related documents

The second consultation in November 2023 focused on supporting materials addressing issues related to market conduct and scenario analysis. 

The third consultation, issued in March 2024 puts forward proposed changes to reflect climate risk in selected ICP guidance material and supporting material relating to corporate governance, risk management and internal controls, valuation of assets and liabilities for solvency purposes, investments activities of insurers, and insurers’ enterprise risk management framework. 

The fourth and final consultation in this series, will include supporting material related to supervisory review and reporting, public disclosure, macroprudential supervision and supervisory cooperation. 

Capacity building

The IAIS is proud to be one of the launching partners of the Climate Training Alliance (CTA), a dedicated online portal for training on climate risks for central banks and supervisors. The CTA is a collaboration between the Bank for International Settlements, the IAIS, the Central Banks and Supervisors Network for Greening the Financial System (NGFS) and the UNDP Sustainable Insurance Forum (SIF). It allows easy and free access for all IAIS members to climate risk trainings, including those based on IAIS supervisory and supporting materials. For instance, it includes a dedicated training programme on climate scenario analysis.  


The IAIS works closely with various partners in addressing the risks and opportunities from climate change. Since its inception in 2017, the SIF has been a key strategic partner. 

The IAIS also collaborates with other international organisations and standard setting bodies on climate risk issues, including the Financial Stability Board (FSB) and the NGFS: 

  • The IAIS contributes to the FSB Roadmap for Addressing Financial Risks from Climate Change. A progress report was published in July 2022. 
  • The IAIS became an observer of NGFS in 2019, to coordinate a global response to the financial risks from climate change. 

Key documents